A school may reproduce copies of the pages in this book for use in its classrooms




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Section 7:

New Beginnings

pages 266–287

After You Read

Checking Predictions

If the issue you selected was resolved in this section, describe how accurate your prediction was.

If not, skip this question.

Mastering Vocabulary

On the lines below, write in your own words a definition for each term.

1. well coiffed

2. protocol

3. brandished

4. fortified

5. gangrene

6. nickelodeon

7. testimony

8. obstinacy

Analyzing the Writing: Crisis, Climax, Falling Action, and Resolution

Crisis occurs when a conflict reaches a turning point. The characters and/or events that have

opposed each other is at its most intense. The outcome or result of this crisis is known as the

climax of the story. It is the high point, just before the falling action, when the story begins to

close, ending in the resolution of the conflict(s).

1. The crisis of this story occurred in the previous section. What was it?

2. How does the entry for April 14, 1907, represent the climax of the story?

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 25

3. How does the entry for April 15, 1907 represent a lesser, secondary climax of the story?

4. Describe the falling action and resolution regarding Marm and Prudence.

falling action:

resolution:

5. Describe the falling action and resolution regarding Prudence and the case.

falling action:

resolution:

Responding to the Story

1. On page 286, the judge says: “It’s not a question of innocence or guilt, but a matter of

circumstance.” How is this different from most trials? Do you think this was any consolation to

Mary or her followers?

2. If a similar epidemic was sweeping through your area today and you or a loved one was found

to be a healthy carrier, how would you respond to being placed in quarantine? How might

things be different today than they were in Mary Mallon’s day?

3. Name other diseases that have healthy or asymptomatic (without any symptoms) carriers today.

4. Typhoid fever is caused by a type of salmonella bacteria. What other types of salmonella do

we deal with today?

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 26

Wrap-up

Author’s Note

Read the Author’s Note found on pages 289–293. How did the author’s background contribute

to her interest in writing this story?

Thinking About the Genre: Historical Fiction

One of the hardest things about writing historical fiction is having to stay in the time period of

the story. For instance, today we know so much more about typhoid and other diseases than they

did during Mary Mallon’s time. Says author Julie Chibbaro regarding the incorrect belief that

yellow fever during the Spanish-American War was spread by human contact (pages 70–81):

“Prudence was reading Soper's notes from 1898. Walter Reed came up with

the mosquito/virus theory/discovery later, in 1900. That's sort of the theme

of the book: what they got right (or wrong) back then; what they knew and

didn't know.”

1. What are some other examples in the book that make the characters seem naive or

unsophisticated?

2. What did you learn about this time period from reading this book that you were not aware of

before?

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 27

Making Connections

1. What is your opinion of the way the Mary Mallon case was handled by the health

department? Explain your answers by using supporting details.

2. What would you have done differently?

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 28

Real People in the Typhoid Mary Event

Person’s

Name Title His or Her Role in the

Typhoid Mary event

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 29

Library Applications

The Scientific Method

Do some research on the scientific method: What is it? How did it come

to be? Then describe how the New York Department of Health and

Sanitation used the scientific method in gathering evidence and coming

to conclusions in the Mary Mallon case. Write a sample lab report

showing the steps of the scientific method.

Alice Catherine Evans (1881–1975)

Deadly includes a real-life person, Dr. S. Josephine Baker, who was a part of the group that helped

the team deal with Mary Mallon. Not many women became doctors or researchers at the time.

Another barrier breaker in this field was Alice Catherine Evans, who proved that dangerous

bacteria could be transmitted in raw milk. She fought a long, hard fight to get people to take her

work seriously—mainly because she was a woman.

Find out more about Dr. Evans and her work.

Create a visual presentation to share with others

or write a research report about her life and

discoveries.

Immigration: Finding Your Roots

Most Americans can trace their family roots back to other countries, either recently or long ago.

Find out more about your ancestors by using any or all of the following resources:

• interview your relatives, especially grandparents or great-grandparents

• ask to see family trees, diaries, or photo albums others in your family have put together

• check out www.ancestry.com (with parental permission only)

• go to your library and ask someone in the reference department for help in researching

your family ancestry

• use the Internet; start by using Google or another search engine and use keywords such as

genealogy, family history, ancestry, or family tree

• check out a book about how to find more information about doing genealogy searches.

Draw a family tree that shows your ancestors and their countries of origin.

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 30

A young girl delivers fresh unpasteurized

milk in the late 1800s

Suggestions for Further Reading

Other books by Julie Chibbaro:

Redemption (Atheneum, Simon & Shuster, 2004)

Winner of the 2005 American Book Award

Summary: Lily hasn't seen her father for over eight months. Kidnapped one night by the

baron's men, he has been forced to leave England and become part of a colony in the New

World. Now Lily and her mother are in danger, and they face persecution for being followers of a

man excommunicated by the church.

Their one chance for freedom is to take passage on the next ship to the New World. Hopeful that

her father might still be alive, Lily persuades her mother to flee. Their harrowing voyage reveals

painful secrets that strip Lily of her innocence. But it also gains her a friend, a boy named Ethan,

son to none other than the baron himself.

Together Ethan and Lily navigate their way through the treachery of a strange new land. Lost in

the wilderness and captured by an Indian tribe, Lily must reach deep inside herself and tap into a

strength she never knew she had if she is to survive.

Historical fiction books about epidemics:

Fever 1793 by Laurie Halse Anderson (yellow fever in Philadelphia)

Winnie’s War by Jenny Moss (influenza in 1918)

Fever Season by Eric Zweig (Spanish influenza in 1919 in Canada)

Forged in the Fire by Ann Turnbull (the plague and London Fire of 1666)

The Apprenticeship of Lucas Whitaker by Cynthia DeFelice (consumption in 1849)

Running Out of Time by Margaret Peterson Haddix (diphtheria 1840/1996)

Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis (the plague in the Caribbean)

Graveyard Girl by Anna Myers (yellow fever in 1878 in Memphis)

A Parcel of Patterns by Jill Paton Walsh (the plague in England in 1665)

Close to Home: A Story of the Polio Epidemic by Lydia Weaver (polio in 1952)

Nonfiction books about epidemics:

An American Plague: The True and Terrifying Story of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 by Jim

Murphy

Dr. Jenner and the Speckled Monster: The Search for the Smallpox Vaccine by Albert Marrin.

Germ Theory (Science Foundations) by Natalie Goldstein

The H1N1 Flu (At Issue Series) by Noah Berlatsky

The Great Influenza: The story of the deadliest pandemic in history by John M. Barry

Epidemics and Society series from Rosen Publishing (various titles)

When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS by James Cross Giblin

Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It by

Gina Kolata

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 31

Correlations to National Standards

For Grades 9–12

Content Area

Standard

Number Standard Objective

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.1 Reading for Perspective

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.2 Reading for Understanding

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.3 Evaluation Strategies

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.4 Communication Skills

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.5 Communication Strategies

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.6 Applying Knowledge

Language Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.7 Evaluating Data

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.8 Developing Research Skills

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.11 Participating in Society

Languages Arts: English NL–ENG.K–12.12 Applying Language Skills

Health NPH–H.9–12.1 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Health NPH–H.9–12.3 Reducing Health Risks

Health NPH–H.9–12.7 Health Advocacy

Science NS.9–12.1 Science as Inquiry

Science NS.9–12.3 Life Science

Science NS.9–12.6 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

Science NS.9–12.7 History and Nature of Science

Social Sciences: Geography NSS–G.K–12.6 The Uses of Geography

Social Sciences: Civics NSS–C.9–12.1 Civic Life, Politics, and Government

Social Sciences: U.S. History NSS–USH.5–12.7

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern

America 1890–1930

Copyright © 2011 School Street Media. All rights reserved. 32
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