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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Cells come in an amazing variety of shapes and sizes, but all cells contain DNA. Also, all cells are surrounded by a thin flexible barrier called a cell membrane. There are two basic categories of cells based on whether they contain a nucleus. The nucleus (plural: nuclei) is a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains DNA.
Eukaryotes are cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei.
Prokaryotes are cells that do not enclose their DNA in nuclei.
The Discovery of the Cell
For Questions 1–6, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words.
1. The invention of the made the discovery of cells possible.
2. Robert Hooke used the name to refer to the tiny empty chambers he saw when he observed magnified cork.
3. German botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded that are made of cells.
4. German biologist Theodor Schwann concluded that are made of cells.
5. Rudolph Virchow concluded that new cells are produced from .
6. The combines the conclusions made by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow.
Exploring the Cell
For Questions 7–9, write True if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true.
7. The size of the image formed by a light microscope is unlimited because light that passes through matter is diffracted.
8. Fluorescent dyes help scientists see the movement of compounds and structures in living cells.
9. Transmission electron microscopes form a 3-D image of the surface of a specimen.
10. In the second row of the table, draw diagrams to show how a sample of three yeast cells would look in the types of micrographs indicated in the top row of the table. Then, in the third row, describe how each image would be formed.
11. To study cells with a light microscope, different types of stains are usually available. Why is it generally more useful to stain eukaryotic cells than prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
12. Complete the table about the two categories of cells.
13. Which category of cells—prokaryotic or eukaryotic—is your body composed of?
Apply the Big idea
14. Recall that in science, a theory is a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations. How does the cell theory demonstrate this definition of theory?
7.2 Cell Structure
Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus.
Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton.
Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in making proteins.
Describe the function of the chloroplasts and mitochondria in the cell.
Describe the function of the cell membrane.
Cell Organization Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and many specialized structures.
Cytoplasm is the fluid portion of a cell.
Organelles are structures that have specialized functions in eukaryotic cells.
The nucleus contains DNA and controls the activity of a cell.
Organelles That Store, Clean Up, and Support These structures include:
vacuoles: membrane-enclosed saclike structures that store water, salts, and organic molecules
lysosomes: small organelles filled with enzymes that break down large molecules and organelles that are no longer useful
the cytoskeleton: a network of protein filaments; it helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in movement
centrioles: organelles made from tubulins; they help organize cell division in animal cells
Organelles That Build Proteins Three kinds of organelles work with the nucleus to make and distribute proteins:
ribosomes: small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells; they produce proteins by following coded instructions from DNA
the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): an internal membrane system where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials
the Golgi apparatus: an organelle that appears as a stack of flattened membranes; it modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
Organelles That Capture and Release Energy Two types of organelles act as power plants of the cells. Both types are surrounded by two membranes.
Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Cells of plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll.
Mitochondria are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells; they convert the chemical energy stored in food to a usable form.
Cellular Boundaries All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. Many cells also have a cell wall. Both cell membranes and cell walls separate cells from the environment and provide support.
Cell walls support, shape, and protect the cell. Most prokaryotes and many eukaryotes have them. Animals do not have cell walls. Cell walls lie outside the cell membrane. Most cell walls allow materials to pass through them.
A cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer, a strong but flexible barrier between the cell and its surroundings. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell. Most biological membranes are selectively permeable, allowing some substances, but not others, to pass across them.
1. Describe the relationship between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of a cell.
2. What does the term organelle mean literally?
For Questions 3–5, refer to the Visual Analogy comparing the cell with a factory.
3. In the visual analogy of a cell as a factory, what two functions of the nucleus are represented? How are these functions illustrated?
4. Which feature of the nucleus is not clearly shown by the visual analogy?
5. What is another possible analogy that could be compared with the structure and function of a cell?
Organelles That Store, Clean Up, and Support
6. What are vacuoles?
7. What are the two roles of the central vacuole in plant cells?
8. How are contractile vacuoles different from other types of vacuoles?
9. In the diagrams of the animal cell and the plant cell, label the structures indicated by the lines.
10. What is the role of lysosomes in the cell? Why is this a vital role?
11. Which structures of the cytoskeleton are found in animal cells but not in plant cells?
12. What other structures of the cytoskeleton would show the same pattern of microtubules as a flagellum?
Organelles That Build Proteins
13. What are ribosomes? What do they do?
14. In which organelle are the lipid components of the cell membrane assembled?
15. What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?
16. Using the cell as a factory analogy, describe the role of the Golgi apparatus in cells.
17. Suppose a cell’s Golgi apparatus does not function properly. How might this problem affect other cells?
Organelles That Capture and Release Energy
18. Complete the Venn diagram to compare and contrast chloroplasts and mitochondria.
For Questions 19–22, write True if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true.
19. Chloroplasts are never found in animal cells.
20. Unlike chloroplasts, mitochondria are surrounded by a double membrane.
21. Nearly all of the mitochondria in your cells were inherited from your mother.
22. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria lack genetic information in the form of DNA.
For Questions 23–25, complete each statement by writing the correct word or words.
23. Most cell are porous to water and other materials but strong enough to support and protect cells.
24. Nearly all of the plant tissue called is made up of cell walls.
25. Besides supporting and protecting a cell, the cell membrane what enters and leaves the cell.
26. Complete the diagram of a section of a cell membrane. Then, on the line below the diagram, write the name of the model that describes the cell membrane’s structure.
Apply the Big idea
27. What is the function of vesicles in the synthesis of proteins and the release of those proteins outside the cell?
Objective: Review all of the concepts seen in chapter 7.
Instruction: Answer correctly workbook 7-3 and 7-4
7.3 Cell Transport
Describe passive transport.
Describe active transport.