Apes unit 2 Practice test




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except

a.

methane gas.

b.

hydrogen sulfide.

c.

carbon dioxide and water.

d.

ethyl alcohol.

e.

lactic acid.


____ 24. The process which results in alcoholic beverages is

a.

aerobic respiration.

b.

anaerobic respiration.

c.

photosynthesis.

d.

chemosynthesis.

e.

inspiration.


____ 25. Which of the following terms includes the others?

a.

ecological diversity

b.

biological diversity

c.

genetic diversity

d.

ecological diversity

e.

functional diversity


____ 26. Most of the energy input in a food chain is

a.

in the form of heat.

b.

converted to biomass.

c.

recycled as it reaches the chain's end.

d.

degraded to low-quality heat.

e.

converted to carbon dioxide.


____ 27. The ecological efficiency at each trophic level of a particular ecosystem is 20%. If the green plants of the ecosystem capture 100 units of energy, about ____ units of energy will be available to support herbivores, and about ____ units of energy will be available to support carnivores.

a.

120 . . . 140

b.

120. . . 240

c.

20. . . 2

d.

20. . . 4

e.

20 . . .1


____ 28. The pyramid which best explains why there are typically only four to five links in a food chain is the pyramid of

a.

energy.

b.

biomass.

c.

numbers.

d.

matter.

e.

productivity.


____ 29. Net primary productivity

a.

is the rate at which producers manufacture chemical energy through photosynthesis.

b.

is the rate at which producers use chemical energy through respiration.

c.

is the rate of photosynthesis plus the rate of respiration.

d.

is usually reported as the energy output of an area of producers over a given time.

e.

is the energy input of an area of producers over a given time.


____ 30. Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest level of kilocalories per square meter per year?

a.

open ocean

b.

tropical rain forest

c.

agricultural land

d.

lakes and streams

e.

temperate forest


____ 31. A cross-sectional view of the ____ in a soil is properly termed a soil ____.

a.

horizons . . . profile

b.

horizons . . . sample

c.

profile . . . sample

d.

surface litter . . . profile

e.

profile . . . horizon.


____ 32. The ____-horizon of a soil contains no organic material and is composed of parent material.

a.

A

b.

B

c.

C

d.

O

e.

D


____ 33. The A-horizon of soil is commonly referred to as

a.

topsoil.

b.

surface litter.

c.

subsoil.

d.

parent rock.

e.

humus.


____ 34. As it is weathered, ____ gives rise to the C-horizon.

a.

parent material

b.

leaching

c.

subsoil

d.

bed rock

e.

B-horizon


____ 35. The soil layer containing unique colors and often iron, aluminum, humus, and clay leached from higher layers is the

a.

parent material.

b.

zone of leaching.

c.

subsoil.

d.

topsoil.

e.

bed rock.


____ 36. Freshly fallen leaves, organic debris, and partially decomposed organic matter are indicative of the

a.

surface litter.

b.

zone of leaching.

c.

parent material.

d.

subsoil.

e.

humus.


____ 37. The dissolving of material from the upper layers of the soil and its movement to lower horizons is called

a.

percolation.

b.

weathering.

c.

accumulation.

d.

leaching.

e.

humus.


____ 38. Leaching occurs when

a.

humus is dissolved.

b.

water removes soluble soil components.

c.

organic compounds slowly decay.

d.

rock is shattered by frost action.

e.

water stays in the soil.


____ 39. Red and yellow colors in a soil horizon usually indicate a

a.

high percentage of sand.

b.

high percentage of lime and gypsum.

c.

lack of iron oxide.

d.

low organic matter content.

e.

large number of soil organisms.


____ 40. Leaf mold, a humus-mineral mixture, and silty loam are indicative of

a.

coniferous forest soil.

b.

deciduous forest soil.

c.

tropical forest soil.

d.

grassland soil.

e.

desert soil.


____ 41. A soil sample of closely packed pebbles that is a mixture of minerals and low in humus probably came from a

a.

coniferous forest.

b.

desert.

c.

deciduous forest.

d.

tropical forest

e.

grassland.


____ 42. If you were a farmer, which type of soil would you choose for your crops?

a.

silt

b.

loam

c.

clay

d.

sand

e.

gravel


____ 43. Which of the following types of soils has the least pore space?

a.

silt

b.

loam

c.

clay

d.

sand

e.

they all have equal pore space.


____ 44. Which of the following types of soils holds the most water?

a.

silt

b.

loam

c.

clay

d.

sand

e.

gravel


____ 45. Sand has ____ permeability and ____ porosity.

a.

high . . . high

b.

high . . . low

c.

low . . . high

d.

low . . . low

e.

medium . . . medium


____ 46. The nitrogen cycle is an example of a(an)

a.

hydrologic cycle.

b.

sedimentary cycle.

c.

carbohydrate cycle.

d.

atmospheric cycle.

e.

rock cycle.


____ 47. The hydrologic cycle is driven primarily by

a.

solar energy and gravity.

b.

solar energy and the moon.

c.

solar energy and mechanical energy.

d.

mechanical and chemical energy.

e.

chemical energy from the moon.


____ 48. The amount of water vapor found in a certain mass of air is the

a.

relative humidity.

b.

absolute humidity.

c.

average humidity.

d.

air pressure.

e.

altitude.


____ 49. Condensation nuclei form from all of the following except

a.

sea salt.

b.

soil dust.

c.

carbon monoxide emitted from vehicles.

d.

volcanic ash.

e.

smoke.


____ 50. Water covers about ____% of earth's surface.

a.

54

b.

64

c.

74

d.

84

e.

94


____ 51. Water molecules ____ each other.

a.

attract

b.

repel

c.

have no effect on

d.

dissolve

e.

diffuse


____ 52. Which of the following statements is false?

a.

Water has a very high heat capacity and changes temperature very slowly.

b.

Water tends to ameliorate temperatures so that coastal towns do not show the temperature ranges of towns in the interior of continents.

c.

Water has a low heat of vaporization; that is, it evaporates very easily.

d.

Water functions well as a coolant.

e.

None of the above statements are false.


____ 53. Which element could be called the "currency for energy exchange in living systems?"

a.

nitrogen

b.

oxygen

c.

carbon

d.

sulfur

e.

phosphorus


____ 54. Transfer of carbon between organisms depends primarily on

a.

fuel combustion and decomposition.

b.

photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

c.

soil bacteria and precipitation.

d.

volcanic activity and organic decay.

e.

the rock cycle.


____ 55. The two ways in which humans have most interfered with the carbon cycle are

a.

removal of forests and aerobic respiration.

b.

aerobic respiration and burning fossil fuels.

c.

respiration and photosynthesis.

d.

burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush.

e.

respiration and removal of forests.


____ 56. Nitrogen is a major component of all of the following except

a.

proteins.

b.

nucleic acids.

c.

ammonia.

d.

groundwater.

e.

DNA.


____ 57. The form of nitrogen most usable to plants is

a.

ammonia.

b.

nitrogen gas.

c.

proteins.

d.

nitrates.

e.

nitrites.


____ 58. When organisms die, their nitrogenous organic compounds are converted to simpler inorganic compounds such as ammonia through the process of

a.

nitrification.

b.

nitrogen fixation.

c.

denitrification.

d.

ammonification.

e.

leaching.


____ 59. Inorganic nitrogen-containing ions are converted into organic molecules through

a.

nitrification.

b.

nitrogen fixation.

c.

denitrification.

d.

assimilation.

e.

leaching.


____ 60. When nitrogen is added to aquatic systems, it is least likely to result in

a.

depletion of oxygen in the water.

b.

stimulated algae growth.

c.

immediate decrease in gross primary productivity.

d.

fish kills.

e.

anoxic conditions.


____ 61. Which of the following is not one of the common phosphorous reservoirs in the ecosystem?

a.

soil

b.

organisms

c.

atmosphere

d.

rocks

e.

marine sediment


____ 62. Phosphorous is used in the composition of all of the following except

a.

fats in cell membranes.

b.

DNA molecules.

c.

bones and teeth.

d.

proteins.

e.

carbohydrates


____ 63. All of the following are sources of phosphorous except

a.

inorganic fertilizer.

b.

runoff of animal wastes from feedlots.

c.

detergents.

d.

acid rain.

e.

guano.


____ 64. The major plant nutrient most likely to be a limiting factor is

a.

phosphorous.

b.

calcium.

c.

manganese.

d.

potassium.

e.

nitrogen.


____ 65. Organic sulfur-containing compounds include

a.

sulfates.

b.

carbohydrates and proteins.

c.

fats and vitamins.

d.

proteins and vitamins.

e.

sulfites.


____ 66. Humans add sulfur to the atmosphere by

a.

refining petroleum.

b.

smelting sulfur compounds or metallic minerals.

c.

burning sulfur-containing fossil fuels.

d.

All of these answers.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 67. Which statement describes field research least?

a.

It has been used to develop most of our knowledge about ecosystems.

b.

It is comparatively easy to set up controlled experiments.

c.

It is relatively time-consuming.

d.

It is relatively expensive.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 68. Which statement least characterizes laboratory research?

a.

It allows measurement of model ecosystems and populations under controlled conditions.

b.

It is faster than similar field research.

c.

It is cheaper than similar field research.

d.

It has been used to develop most of our knowledge about ecosystems.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 69. Which statement least characterizes systems analysis as a research strategy?

a.

It is usually carried out by an expert in the field.

b.

It has developed over the last twenty-five years.

c.

It can be applied to complex systems that cannot be adequately studied in the field or laboratory.

d.

It can simulate ecosystems.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 70. One member of a system analysis team is a person who loves to tinker with variables to see the potential impact of trying different solutions, to engage fully in the study of cause and effect. If you were a system manager, to which stage of the system analysis would you assign this person?

a.

system measurement

b.

system simulation

c.

system optimization

d.

system modeling

e.

data optimization


____ 71. The American alligator is now listed as threatened because

a.

their nesting mounds are easy targets.

b.

their skins are used to make shoes, belts, and pocketbooks.

c.

their meat is considered exotic.

d.

All of these answers.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 72. Where is most of the world's biodiversity?

a.

high-latitude forests

b.

middle-latitude grasslands

c.

low-latitude forests

d.

polar grasslands

e.

tundra


____ 73. Which term means the opposite of the others?

a.

exotic species

b.

native species

c.

alien species

d.

nonnative species

e.

generalist species


____ 74. Which of the following statements about amphibians is false?

a.

The oldest of today's amphibians were living as long as 150 million years ago.

b.

Amphibians are important indicator species.

c.

Amphibians are experiencing sharp population declines in a variety of habitats.

d.

Amphibians eat many insects, second in number only to birds.

e.

They are often considered keystone species.


____ 75. Birds and trout make good

a.

nonnative species.

b.

native species.

c.

keystone species.

d.

indicator species.

e.

generalist species.


____ 76. Sea otters, dung beetles, and gopher tortoises are generally considered to be

a.

nonnative species.

b.

native species.

c.

keystone species.

d.

specialist species.

e.

generalist species.


____ 77. Species that can create and enhance habitats that can benefit other species in a community such as birds that regenerate deforested areas and spread seeds through their droppings are called

a.

keystone species

b.

foundation species

c.

native species

d.

indicator species

e.

invasive species


____ 78. Which of the following statements is false?

a.

When environmental conditions are changing rapidly, a generalist is usually better off than a specialist.

b.

The fundamental niche of a species is the full range of physical, chemical, and biological factors it could use if there were no competition.

c.

The competitive exclusion principle states that no two species with the same fundamental niche can indefinitely occupy the same habitat.

d.

Interspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species.

e.

Intraspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species.


____ 79. The relationship between fire ants and native ant populations is best described as

a.

mutualism.

b.

commensalism.

c.

intraspecific competition.

d.

interspecific competition.

e.

parasitism.


____ 80. A new kitten is added to a home with an established older cat. The older cat is observed to gobble up its food as well as that of the younger cat. This behavior is best described as

a.

interference competition.

b.

exploitation competition.

c.

mutualism.

d.

predation.

e.

parasitism.


____ 81. A new kitten is added to a home with an established older cat. You observe the older cat hiss and swat at the younger kitten in the kitchen where they are fed. This behavior is best described as

a.

interference competition.

b.

exploitation competition.

c.

mutualism.

d.

predation.

e.

parasitism.


____ 82. Interspecific competition can be avoided by

a.

eating at different times.

b.

resource partitioning.

c.

character displacement.

d.

All of these answers.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 83. A shark is least likely to be killed

a.

by a predator.

b.

for sport.

c.

out of fear.

d.

for food.

e.

for their jaws.


____ 84. A relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed to any significant degree is best labeled

a.

competition.

b.

predation.

c.

commensalism.

d.

parasitism.

e.

mutualism.


____ 85. Of the following relationships, the one most likely to be described as a positive feedback loop is

a.

competition.

b.

predation.

c.

mutualism.

d.

parasitism.

e.

commensalism.


____ 86. All of the following are ectoparasites except

a.

fleas and ticks.

b.

mosquitoes.

c.

mistletoe.

d.

tapeworms.

e.

athlete's foot fungus.


____ 87. All of the following illustrate the relationship of mutualism except

a.

lichens.

b.

epiphytes.

c.

ants and acacias.

d.

Rhizobium bacteria in root nodules of legumes.

e.

flowering plants and insects.


____ 88. The relationship between redwood trees and redwood sorrel is

a.

competition.

b.

predation.

c.

parasitism.

d.

commensalism.

e.

mutualism.


____ 89. Forms of nondestructive behavior between organisms include all of the following except

a.

sharing resources by hunting at different times.

b.

sharing resources by looking for food in different places.

c.

parasitism.

d.

mutualism.

e.

commensalism.


____ 90. Which of the following statements about primary succession is false?

a.

It is initiated by pioneer species.

b.

It often involves species changing the environment so that they can no longer thrive and must be replaced by other species.

c.

It generally results in more complex, more self-sustaining stages than the preceding ones.

d.

It is an orderly progression from pioneer species to climax species indicative of the region being studied.

e.

All of these statements are true.


____ 91. How long does it take natural processes to produce fertile soil?

a.

weeks to months

b.

months to years.

c.

decades to a few centuries.

d.

several centuries to several thousands of years.

e.

several thousand years to millions of years.


____ 92. Which of the following would undergo secondary succession?

a.

cooled volcanic lava

b.

an abandoned parking lot

c.

a heavily polluted stream that has been cleaned up

d.

a bare rock outcrop

e.

a newly created shallow pond


____ 93. Soil formation in primary succession is encouraged by

a.

physical weathering.

b.

lichens and mosses trapping soil particles.

c.

secretion of acids by lichens.

d.

All of these answers.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 94. A field ecologist observes primary succession occurring over a period of years. Bare rock is colonized by lichens that give way to moss that give way to ferns. She is most likely to report that the process guiding succession in this ecosystem is

a.

interspecific competition.

b.

tolerance.

c.

facilitation.

d.

inhibition.

e.

intraspecific competition.


____ 95. You observe a stand of dense hemlocks. You know squirrels from an adjacent area have brought pine cones to the ecosystem, but no pine seedlings have sprouted. Of the following choices, the best label for this observation is

a.

primary succession.

b.

tolerance.

c.

tertiary succession.

d.

inhibition.

e.

facilitation.


____ 96. You observe a maple seedling grow successfully in a birch stand. All species thrive. The best label for this observation would be

a.

primary succession.

b.

tolerance.

c.

tertiary succession.

d.

inhibition.

e.

facilitation.


____ 97. In mature ecosystems

a.

most plants are annuals.

b.

species diversity is low.

c.

the efficiency of energy use is high.

d.

the efficiency of nutrient recycling is low.

e.

there are few, mostly generalized, ecological niches.


____ 98. Ecologists would consider all of the following to be natural disturbances except

a.

droughts.

b.

floods.

c.

deforestation.

d.

fires.

e.

frost.


____ 99. Most terrestrial ecosystems are a dynamic patchworks of vegetation providing

a.

great biodiversity and sites for early successional species to gain a foothold.

b.

great biodiversity and sites that favor late successional species.

c.

moderate biodiversity and sites for all successional species.

d.

moderate biodiversity and sites for early successional species to gain a foothold.

e.

None of these answers.


____ 100. Which of the following refers to the ability of an organism to return to its former condition after a period of stress?

a.

stability

b.

inertia

c.

constancy

d.

resilience

e.

persistence


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