This is about bacteria. They are very small. We must use microscopes to see them. They reproduce by fission. Fission is when one cell becomes two cells




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títuloThis is about bacteria. They are very small. We must use microscopes to see them. They reproduce by fission. Fission is when one cell becomes two cells
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BACTERIA



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Staphylococcus_aureus_01.jpg
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson

This is about bacteria. They are very small. We must use microscopes to see them. They reproduce by fission. Fission is when one cell becomes two cells. Bacteria and other animals which need air are called aerobes. An organism which does not need air is called an anaerobe. Pathogens cause diseases. Antibiotics are from organisms like molds and fungi. They kill other bad organisms or pathogens with poisons.

Esto es sobre las bacterias. Son muy pequeñas. Tenemos que utilizar microscopios para verlas. Se reproducen por fision. La fisión es cuando una célula se convierte en dos células. Las bacterias y otros animales que necesitan aire se llaman aerobios. Un organismo que no necesita aire se llama un anaerobio. Los patógenos causan enfermedades. Los antibioticos son de organismos como los moldes y los hongos. Matan a otros malos organismos o patogenos con venenos.

Poisons from organisms are called toxins. Many bacteria with toxins have a wall around them. That wall is called an endospore. It can protect them in hot and cold weather. Sometimes volcanoes may send rocks with bacteria into outer space. Many bacterial look like spheres or balls. We call them cocci. Bacteria like rods are long. We call them bacilli. Spiral bacteria are called spirilla.

Los venenos de organismos se llaman toxinas. Muchas bacterias con toxinas tienen una pared alrededor de ellas. Esa pared se llama una endospora. Puede protegerlas en tiempo caliente y frígido. Volcanes pueden enviar a veces piedras con bacterias en el espacio exterior. Muchas bacterias parecen como esferas o bolas. Las llamamos coccis. Bacterias como barras (varas) son largas. Las llamamos bacilios. Bacterias espirales se llaman las espirilas.


INVERTEBRATES
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Schleiden-meduse-2.jpg

This shows the development of a jellyfish.

Esto muestra el desarrollo de una medusa.
This is about invertebrate animals. Of all the animals on earth about 98% are invertebrates. Invertebrate means with no backbone. A backbone is a group of bones in the back of an animal. Invertebrates have bilateral or radial symmetry. Symmetry means they have similar parts. So bilateral symmetry means an animal has two similar sides of the body. Radial means it has similar parts which go from the center of its body. Jellyfish are invertebrates. Anthropoda are animals with exoskeletons. This means they have their bones or skeleton outside their bodies.
Esto es sobre los animales invertebrados. De todos los animales en la Tierra casi 98% son invertebrados. Invertebrado significa con ninguna espina dorsal. Una espina dorsal es un grupo de huesos en la parte posteriora de un animal. Los invertebrados tienen simetria bilateral o radial. Simetria significa que ellos tienen partes similares. Por lo tanto simetria bilateral significa que un animal tiene dos lados similares del cuerpo. Radial significa que tiene partes similares que van del centro de su cuerpo. Los medusas son invertebrados. Los antropodas son animales con exoesqueletos. Esto significa que tienen sus huesos o esqueleto afuera de sus cuerpos.
Invertebrates also have cold blood. The biggest group of invertebrates are the insects. Some of the many invertebrates in Mexico are landcrabs, caterpillars and cicadas. Mexico has about 20 million poor people who earn less than $1 a day, and they sometimes eat insects such as grasshoppers, bugs and locusts which have a lot of protein. Some restaurants sell tortillas with red and white agave worms. One estimate says that 80% of people around the earth eat insects for food. Ants are also popular.
Los invertebrados tambien tienen sangre frigida. El grupo mas grande de los invertebrados es los insectos. Unos de los muchos invertebrados en Mexico son cangrejos de tierra, orugas y cigarras. Mexico tiene casi 20 millones de personas que ganan menos que un dolar cada dia, y a veces comen insectos como saltamontes, chinches y langostas que tienen mucha proteina. Unos restaurantes venden tortillas con gusanos agave rojos y blancos. Una estimacion dice que 80% de la gente alrededor de la Tierra comen insectos para comidas. Hormigas son populares tambien.

MINERALS AND GEMS
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gem.pebbles.800pix.labelled.jpg
This is about minerals such as gold and gems such as diamonds. Some come from magma which is lava that was in the Earth. The minerals called silicates are common. They have much silicon and oxygen. Scientists study the characteristics of minerals. One characteristic is hardness which is how hard a mineral is. Luster is how bright a mineral is. They also study color, streak, cleavage and fracture. Streak is the color of a mineral which is in very small pieces. Minerals which break evenly have cleavage. If not even, they have fracture. Gems are beautiful, expensive minerals.
Esto es sobre minerales como oro, y gemas como diamantes. Algunos vienen del magma que es la lava que estuvo en la Tierra. Los minerales llamados los silicatos son comunes. Tienen mucho silicio y oxígeno. Los cientificos estudian las caracteristicas de minerales. Una caracteristica es la dureza la que es cuan duro un mineral es. El lustre es cuan brillante un mineral es. Tambien estudian el color, la raya, la hendidura y la fractura. La raya es el color de un mineral que es en pedazos muy pequenos. Los minerales que se rompen uniformemente tienen la hendidura. Si no nivelado, tienen la fractura. Las gemas son los minerales lindos y costosos. Los diamantes son gemas. Son las joyas mas preciadas.
Diamonds are gems. They are the most precious jewels. Possibly diamonds were first used in India. Today many are found in Brasil and southern Africa. A few diamonds are found in Arkansas. Mexico has no diamonds but it has a lot of opals in the state of Queretaro north of Mexico City. Jade is found in the Sierra de las Minas mountains. The state of Chiapas near Guatemala has jade and amber.
Posiblemente los diamantes se usaron por la primera vez en India. Hoy mucho se encuentran en el Brasil y a la parte sur de Africa. Unas pocas de diamantes se encuentran en Arkansas. Mexico no tiene diamantes pero tiene muchos opales en el estado de Queretaro al norte de la Ciudad de Mexico. Jada se encuentra en las montanas Sierra de las Minas. El estado de Chiapas cercano Guatemala tiene jada y ambar..
Valuable minerals like iron, titanium and gold are called ores. Although very strong, titanium is also very light. Many gold mines are in South Africa. Most of the gold in the U.S. comes from mines in South Dakota and Nevada. Mexico has many gold mines and other ores such as silver, copper, lead and zinc. The most famous silver mine is called La Valenciana. It is in the state of Guanajuato. For almost 250 years about 30% of the world’s silver came from this mine.

Los minerales valiosos como el hierro, el titanio y el oro se llaman las menas. Aunque muy fuerte, el titanio es muy ligero tambien. Muchas minas de oro estan en Sudafrica. La mayoria de oro en los EEUU viene de las minas en Dakota del Sur y Nevada. Mexico tiene muchas minas de oro y otras menas como plata, cobre y zinc. La mina de plata mas famosa se llama La Valencia. Esta en el estado de Guanajuato. Por casi 250 anos casi 30% de la plata del mundo vino de esta mina.

Many financial experts recommend gold as an investment. When paper money loses its value, the value of gold is much greater. Scientists can create some gems, but they cannot create gold.

Muchos expertos economicos recomiendan el oro como una inversion. Cuando el dinero de papel se pierde su valor, el valor de oro es mas grande. Cientificos pueden creer gemos pero no pueden creer el oro.


SPHERES OF THE EARTH

ESFERAS DE LA TIERRA
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson


http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/103949main_earth10.jpg
The Earth has three very different areas. They are called the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The atmosphere has gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Winds in the atmosphere sometimes blow fine dust from Africa and China to North America. The hydrosphere has water in particular in the oceans. The place with the least water is Arica in Chile. Lloro in Columbia receives about 400 inches of rain each year.
La Tierra tiene tres áreas muy diferentes. Se llaman la atmósfera, la hidrosfera y la litosfera. La atmósfera tiene gases como oxigeno y carbono dioxígeno. Vientos en la atmosfera a veces llevan polvo fino de Africa y China a Norteamerica. La hidrosfera tiene agua en particular en los oceanos. El lugar con lo menos de agua es Africa en Chile. Lloro en Colombia recibe casi 400 pulgadas de lluvia cada año. La litosfera tiene rocas y suelo.
The lithosphere has rocks and soil. The lithosphere also has various parts. It has a crust, mantle, and core. The crust is the part on the top of the planet, and it is very thin. The core is the hottest part. The core has two parts. The outer core is fluid. The inner core is solid.
La litosfera tambien tiene partes varias. Tiene una corteza, manto, y nucleo. La corteza es la parte en la superficie del planeta, y es muy delgado. El nucleo es la parte mas caliente. El nucleo tiene dos partes. El nucleo exterior es fluido. El nucleo exterior es solido.
When comets and meteorites formed the Earth about five billion years ago, the Earth was very hot and it still is. Denser materials like iron are mostly at the core of the Earth, while lighter silicates and water are near the surface.
Cuando cometas y meteorites formaron la Tierra hace casi cinco millones de millones de años, la Tierra tenia calor y todavia lo tiene. Materiales mas densos como hierro estan principalmente en el nucleo de la Tierra, mientras que los silicates mas ligeros y agua estan acerca de la superficie.
We know this because of the movement of seismic waves during earthquakes. When materials in the core move this may also cause movement of the large continental plates and a magnetic field or area around the planet called the magnetosphere.
Sabemos esto a cuasa del movimiento de ondas seismicas durante terramotas. Cuando materiales en el nucleo mueven esto tal vez causa movimiento de la plata continental grande y un campo o area magnetico alrededor del planeta llamado el magnetosfera.
In 1556 an earthquake in China killed about 830,000 people. Mexico City had a major quake in 1985. California and Missouri also have major earthquake zones.
En 1556 un terramoto en China mato a casi 830.000 personas. La Ciudad de Mexico tuvo un terramoto considerable en 1985. California y Misuri tambien tienen zonas de terramotos considerables.

 THE WATER CYCLE
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson


Water Cycle – usgs.gov
The Water Cycle is very important. Organisms die if they do not receive enough water. The Water Cycle is also called the Hydrologic Cycle. Hydro- is a Greek word which means Water. The sun sends its rays to the surface of water in the ocean. Some of the water evaporates. This is a process called evaporation. Although water is a liquid, it becomes vapor. The vapor goes up into the air. It becomes moisture or condenses in clouds. We call this process condensation. The clouds move over the land. When the clouds have a lot of heavy condensation, the condensation falls from the clouds. This is a process we call precipitation.
El Ciclo de Agua es muy importante. Los organismos mueren si no reciben bastante agua. El Ciclo de Agua tambien se llama el Ciclo Hidrologico. Hydro- es una palabra griega que significa Agua. El sol envia sus rayos a la superficie del agua en el oceano. Un poco del agua se evapora. Esto es un proceso llamada la evaporacion. Aunque el agua es un liquido, se convierte en vapor. El vapor va arriba y adentro del aire. Se convierte en la humedad o condensa en nubes. Llamamos este proceso la condensacion. Los nubes se mueven sobre la tierra. Cuando los nubes tienen mucha condensacion pesada, la condensacion se cae de los nubes. Esto es un proceso que llamamos la precipitacion.
There are different kinds of precipitation. For example there are rain, snow and hail. The precipitation goes into other bodies of water such as rivers and lakes, or it goes into the ground. Eventually the precipitation returns to the ocean. A system of rivers and lakes that drain into a sea or ocean is called a watershed. There are some very interesting statistics about precipitation. For example in 1959 an area of California received 189 inches of snow in one week. In 1228 a flood from the ocean killed 100,000 people in Holland. In 1931 a flood killed 3.8 million people in China. In 2004 a tsunami killed almost 160,000 people in Southeast Asia. There was major flooding and snowfall in the US in 1993. An interesting website is weather.com.
Hay diferentes tipos de la precipitacion. Por ejemplo hay la lluvia, la nieve y el granizo. La precipitacion va a otros cuerpos de agua como rios y lagos, o va adentro de la tierra. Finalmente la precipitacion vuelve al oceano. Una esistema de rios y lagos que desaguan en un mar o un oceano se llama una cuenca hidrografica. Hay unas estadisticas muy interesantes sobre la precipitacion. Por ejemplo en 1959 un area de California recibio 189 pulgadas de nieve en una semana. En 1228 una inundacion del oceano mato a 100.000 gente en Holandia. En 1931 una inundacion mato a 3.8 millones de personas en China. En 2004 un tsunami mato a casi 160.000 personas en Asia de Sureste. Hubo inundacion y nevada considerable en los EEUU en 1993. Una pagina de internet intersante es weather.com.

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ENERGY

Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson

 

This is about energy which is the ability to cause change. Sources of energy include chemical, radiant (light), atomic and sound sources. They also include muscular, mechanical, thermal (heat), and electrical energy. Nuclear or atomic energy is from atomic fission or fusion. The heat from atoms causes electricity. Heat can travel or radiate by conduction and convection. Conduction is when one hot thing touches something colder.
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