Indice ( irá al índice general) II. Factores de riesgo 4




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BIBLIOGRAFIA



SOBREPESO/DIETA

  1. Berg FM: Health Risks of Obesity: 1993 Special Report. Hettinger, ND, Obesity & Health, 1992;

  2. Manson JE, Colditz G, Stampfer MJ,Willett WC, Rosner B, Monson RR, Speizer FE, Hennnekens CH: A Prospective study of obesity and risk coronary heart disease en women. N Engl J Med 1990 ; 322: 882-889.

  3. Bouchard C, Bray GA, Hubbard VS : Basic and clinical aspects of regional fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 52:946-950


EJERCICIO

  1. Grupo de trabajo de rehabilitación cardiaca de la SEC: Guia de ejercicio fisico en rehabilitación cardiaca. Barcelona 1998 (III)

  2. Guideline for exercise testing. ACC/AHA-De Español 1998 Medical trends SL (III)

  3. Perez David E, Rey JA: Cardiopatia isquemica: Angina de pecho. En Sosa V, ed. Estudio de la incapacidad laboral por enfermedades cardio-circulatorias. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del trabajo, 1998;103-15. (II-2)



TABACO

  1. Winniford MD, Jansen DE, Reynolds GA, Apprill P, Black WH, Hillis LD. Cigarette smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and prevention by calcium antagonists and nitroglycerin. Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:203-207.

  2. Deanfield J, Wright C, Krikler S, Ribeiro P, Fox K. Cigarette smoking and the treatment of angina with propranolol, atenolol, and nifedipine. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:951-954.

  3. Barry J, Mead K, Nabel EG, et al. Effect of smoking on the activity of ischemic heart disease.JAMA. 1989;261:398-402.)

  4. Wilhelmsson C. Coronary Heart disease: epidemiology of smoking and intervention studies of smoking. Am Heart J 1988; 115:242-9.

  5. Daly LE, Mulcahy R, Graham IM, Hickey N. Long term effect on mortality of stopping smoking after unstable angina and myocardial infarction. BMJ 1983; 287: 324-6 )

  6. Burling TA, Singleton EG, Bigelow GE, Baile WF, Gottlieb SH. Smoking following myocardial1999 Updated (. ACC/AHA AMI Guideline Page 220 Web Version with changes highlighted )

  7. Kottke TE, Battista RN, DeFriese GH, Brekke ML. Attributes of successful smoking cessation interventions in medical practice. A meta-análisis of 39 controlled trials. JAMA 1988; 259:2883-9

  8. Gourlay SG, McNeil JJ. Antismoking products. Med J Aust. 1990;153:699-707. 1999 Updated ACC/AHA AMI Guideline Page 209 (Web Version with changes highlighted).

  9. Covey LS, Glassman AH. A meta-analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials of clonidine for smoking cessation. Br J Addict. 1991;86:991-998.)

  10. Bernstein DA. Modification of smoking behavior: an evaluative review. Psychol Bull.1969;71:418-440..

  11. Davison GC, Rosen RC. Lobeline and reduction of cigarette smoking. Psychol Rep.1972;31:443-456.. Ford SJ, Ederer F. Breaking the cigarette habit. JAMA. 1965;194:139-142.).

  12. ( Hurt RD, Sachs DP, Glover ED, et al. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1195-1202.)


FUM_PASIVOS

  1. Steenland K, Thun M, Lally C et al.: Envirinmental tobacco smoke and coronary heart disease in the American Cancer Society CPS-II Cohort. Circulation, 1996; 94: 622-6 T,

  2. Glantz SA, Parmley WW: Passive smoking and heart disease: Mecanism and risk. JAMA 1995; 273: 1047-1053.

  3. Iso H, Shimamoto T, Sato S et al.: Passive smoking and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 1151-1154.28.



ALCOHOL


  1. Rayo I, Marín Huerta M. Vino y corazón. Rev Esp Cardiol 1988; 51: 435-449 .

  2. Gaziano JM. Buring JE, BresloW JL, Goldhaber SZ, Rosner B, Vandenburh M et al. Moderate alcohol intake , encreased levels of HDL and its subfractions and decreased resk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1829-1834.

  3. Friedman LA, Kimball AW. Coronary heart disease mortality and alcohol consuption in Framingham.An H Eoudenuik 1986; 124:481-489. Lancet 1981;I:580-3)

DISLIPEMIA

  1. Velasco JA, Cosin J, López Sendón JL, de Teresa E, et al.: La prevención secundaria del infarto de miocardio en España. Estudio PREVESE. Rev Esp Cardiol 1997;50:406-410.

  2. Euroaspire Study Group. A European Society of Cardiology Survey of secundary prevention of coronary heart disease: principal results. European action on secundary prevention through interventions to reduce events. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1569-1592.

  3. Chambless L, Keil U, Dobson A et al.: for the MONICA project. Results from the WHO-MONICA Project 1985-1990. Circulation 1997; 96: 3849-3859.

  4. Preventing heart attack and death in patients with coronary disease: Consensus panel statement. AHA medical/scientific statement. Publicado simultáneamente en Circulation 1995;92:2-4 y JACC 1995;26:292-294.).

  5. The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survuval Study Group. Ramdomised Trial of cholesterol lowering in 4.444 patients with coronary heart disease: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survuval Study (4S). Lancet 1994;344:1383-1389.

  6. Pfeffer MA, Moye L and cols.: T he efects of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. CARE study. N Eng J Med 1996;335:1001-1009.

  7. Summary of the Second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert panel on Detection, Evaluation, and treatment of high Blood Cholesterol in Adults. JAMA 1993; 269: 3015-3023.

  8. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of Cardiovascuilar events and Death with Pravastatin in Patients with Coronary heart Disease and a Broad Range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1349-1357.

  9. Rosenson RS. Myocardial Injury: The Acute Phase Response And Lipoprotein Metabolism JACC 1993;22:933-940.

  10. National Colesterol Education Program. Second report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adult. (Adult Treatment Panel II). Circulation 1994; 89: 1329-1445.

  11. Wood D, De Baker G, Faergeman O et al.: Task Force Report. Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice: Recomendations of the Second Join Task Force of European and others Societies on coronary Prevention. Atherosclerosis 1998; 140: 199-270 publicado también en Eur Heart J 1998;19:1434-1503 y Rev Esp Cardiol 2000; 53: 413-421.

  12. Pitt B, Waters D, Brown WV et al.: For The Atorvastatin versus revascularization Treatment (AVERT) Investigators. Agresive lipid-lowering therapy compared with angioplasty in stable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 70-76.

  13. Schwartz GC, Oliver MF, Ezekowitz MD et al.: Rationale and design of the myocardial ischemia Reduction with Agresive cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) study that evalueates atorvastatin in unstable angina pectoris and in non Q-wave acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1998; 81: 578-581.

  14. Morbi-mortalidad es España. Ed Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid 1994.

  15. Plaza Pérez I, Villar Alvarez F, Mata López P et al.: Control de la colesterolemia en España, 2000. Un instrumento para la prevención cardiovascular. Rev Esp Cardiol 2000, 53: 815-837.

  16. Frick MH, Syvanne M, Nilsson MS et al.: Prevention of the angiographic progresion of coronay and vein-graft atherosclerosis by gemfibrozil after coronary bypass surgery in men with low levels of HDL colesterol. Circulation, 1997; 96: 2137-2143.

  17. Rubins AB, Robins SJ, Collins D et al.: Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 410-418.

  18. Gordon DJ, Probstfield JL, Garrison RJ et al.: Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: Four prospective American studies. Circulation 1989;79:8-15.



HIPERTENSION ARTERIAL

  1. D’Agostino RB, Belanger AY, Kannel WB, Cruickshank JM. Relationship of low diastolic blood pressure to coronary Heart disease in the presence of myocardial infarction: the Framingham study. Br Med J 1991; 303:385–9. (II-2)

  2. Flack J, Neaton J, Grimm R, Shih J, Cutler J, Ensrud K, et al. for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. Blood pressure and mortality among men with prior myocardial infarction. Circulation 1995; 92:2437-2445. (I)

  3. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlof B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998; 351: 1755-62. (I)

  4. Cruickshank JM. Beta-blockers: primary and secondary pre-vention.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1992; (Suppl 11): S55–S69. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. Secondary prevention with verapamil after myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990; 66: 331–401.) (I)

  5. Connolly DC, Elveback LR, Oxman HA. Coronary heart disease in residents of Rochester, Minnesota, 1950-1975. III. Effect of hypertension and its treatment on survival of patients with coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1983; 58:). (II-2)

  6. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease following Myocardial Infarction January 2000(SIGN publication nº 41).(III)

  7. MacMahon S.Peto R, Cutler J et al. Blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease. (Part1). Prolongued differences in blood presure:prospective observacional studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990;335:765-774. (II-2)

  8. Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S et al. Blood pressure, stroke and coronary heart disease. Part2, short term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trails. Lancet 1990;335:827-38. (II-2)

  9. Rodgers A, Neal B, MacMahon S. The effects of blood pressure lowering individuals with cerebrovascular disease: an overview of randomised controlled trials. Neurol Rev Int 1997; 2:12±15. (I)

  10. Neal B, Clark T, MacMahon S, Rodgers A, Baigent C, Collins R, on behalf of the Antithrombotic Trialists’ (ATT) Collaboration. Blood pressure and risk of recurrent vascular disease . Am J Hypertens 1998; 11:25. (I)

  11. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and reatment of High Blood Pressure” (JNC VI).Archives of Internal Medicine 1997; 24;157(21):2401-2 (III)

  12. Guidelines subcommittee. 1999 World Health Organization-Internacional Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Mahagement of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertensión 1999, 17:151-183 .(III)

  13. Control de la Colesterolemia en España 2000. Un instrumento para la prevención cardiovascular. El Medico interactivo. Nº 336. Junio 2000). (III)



DIABETES MELLITUS


  1. Yudkin JS, Blauth C, Drury P et al. Prevention and management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus: an evidence base. Diabet Med 1996; 13: S101–21. (II-2)

  2. Grundy S, Benjamin I, Burke G, Chait A, Eckel R , Howard B, Mitch W, Smith S Sowers J. Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease. A Statement for Healthcare professional From the American Heart Association. Circulation 1999;100:1134-114.(III)

  3. UK prospective group.Tight blood presure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes:UKPDS 38.BMJ 1998; 317:703-713.(I)

  4. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 352:837–853, 1998 (I)

  5. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352:854–865, 1998. (I)

  6. Turner RC, Millns H, Neil HAW, Stratton IM, Manley SE, Matthews DR, Holman RR, for UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Risk factor for coronary artery disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (UKPDS 23). BMJ 1998;316:823-828. (I)

  7. Wei M, Gaskill S, Haffner S, Stern M. Effects of Diabetes and level of glucemia on al-cause and cardiovascular mortality (The San Antonio Heart Study). Diabetes Care 1998; 1167-75. (II-2)

  8. Klein R. Hyperglucemia and macrovascular and microvascular disease in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:258-268. (I)

  9. Malmberg K, Ryde´n L, Efendic S et al. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarc-tion (DIGAMI Study): effects on mortality at 1 year. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26: 57–65. (I)

  10. Malmberg K. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group. BMJ 1997; 314: 1512-5. (I)

  11. Melber K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. Glucometabilic State at admisión: Important risk market in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction. Long –term result from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucosa infusión in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) Study. Circulation 1999;99:2626-2632. (I)

  12. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease. August 1997 (SIGN publication nº 19).(III).

  13. European Diabetes Policy Group 1998-1999, International Diabetes Federation . Guidelines for Diabetes Care. A Desktop Guide to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 1999; volume 16 .(III)
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