Indice ( irá al índice general) II. Factores de riesgo 4




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NUEVOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CORONARIO


  1. Castelli WP.: Redefinición de la valoración de riesgo de padecer cardiopatía. El papel de los nuevos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Cardiovascuoar risk Factors (ed española) 1997; 6: 6-10

  2. Ross r.: The patogénesis of atherosclerosis: aperspective for the 90´s. Nature 1993; 362: 801-809.

  3. Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer et al.: Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in aparently healthy man. N Engl J Med 1997 336; 973-979.

  4. Ridker PM; Hennekens CH; Buring JE; C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediuction of cardiovasculoar disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 836-843

  5. Ramirez JA and the Chlamydia pneumoniae /Athetorclerosis Study Group. Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae from the coronary artery of a patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med 1966; 125: 979-982.

  6. Muhlestein JB, Hammond EH, Carlquist JF et al.: Chlamydia pneumoniae Increased incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae species within the coronary arteries of patients with symptomatic atheroscklerosis versus other forms of cradiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1966; 27: 1555-1561.

  7. Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL, Hammond EH, et al.: Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae accelerates the development ofr atherosclerosis and treatment with azithromycin prevents It in a rabit model. Circulation 1998; 97: 633-636.

  8. Gupta S, Leatham EW, Carrington D et al.: Elevated Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies, cardiovascular events and azithromicin in males survivors of myocatrdial infarction. Circulation 1997; 96: 404-407.

  9. Beck J, García R, Heiss G et al.: Periodontal disease and cardiovascuolar disease. J Periodontaol 1996; 67: 1123-1137.

  10. Fryer RH, Wilson BD, Gubler DB et al.: Homocystein, a risk factor for premature vascular disease and thrombosis, induces tissue factor activity in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb 1993; 13: 1327-1333.

  11. Stamler JS, Osborne JA, Jaraki O et al.: Adverse vascular effects of hocysteine are modulated by endothelium-derived relaxing factor and relates oxides of nitrogen. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 308-318.

  12. Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM et al.: Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European concerted Action Project. J Am Med Assoc 1997; 277: 1775-1781.

  13. Bousey CJ, Beresford SAA, Omenn GGS et al.: A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteuine as a risk factor for vascular disease: propbable beneficts of increasing folic acid intakes. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 274: 1049-1057.

  14. Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H et al.: Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 230-236.

  15. Meade TW, Mellows S, Brozovic M et al.: Haemostatic function and ischaemic heart disease: principal results of the Northweick park Heart Study. Lancet 1986; 2: 533-537.

  16. Yarnell JW, Baker IA, Sweetnam PM et al.: Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count area major risk factor for ischaemic heart disewase studies. Circulation 1991; 83: 836-844. MF

  17. Oliver MF et al. for The Scottish Heart Health Study. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 8-9.

  18. Kaplan GA, Keil JE: Socioeconomic factor and cardiovascular disease: A rewue of the literature. Circulation 1993; 88: 1973-1998.

  19. Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M.: Depression following myocardial infarction. Impact on 6 month survival. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 270: 1819-1825.

  20. Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M.: Depression and 18 month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1995; . 91: 999-1005.

  21. Angerer P, Mutalbaner D, von Schacky C.: Influence of hostilite, outward expression of anger and lack of social support on progresion of coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 1997; 96: I-279.

  22. Berkman LF, Leo-Summers L, Horowitz RI.: Emotional support and survival after myocardial infarction. A prospective, population based study of the elderly. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 1003-1009.

  23. Jauhiainen M, Koskinen P, Ehnholm C et al.: Lipoprotein (a) and coronary heart disease risk: a nested case-controlstudy of the Helsinki Heart study participants. Atherosclerosis 1991; 89: 59-67.

  24. Simons L, Friedlander Y, Simons J et al.: Lipoprotein (a) is not assiciated with coronary heart disease in the Prevention Trial. J Amelederly: crossectional data from the Dubbo study. Atherosclerosis 1993; 99: 87-95.

  25. Schaefer E, Lamon-Fava S, Jenner JJ et al.: Lipoprotein (a) levels and risk of coronary heart disease in men. The Lipid Research Clinics Primary Prevention Trial. JAMA 1994; 271: 999-1003.

  26. Bostom AG, Cupples LA, Jenner JJ et al.:Elevates plasma lipoprotein (a) and coronary heart disease in men aged 55 years and younger. A prospective study. JAMA 1994; 276: 544-548.


FARMACOS CARDIOPROECTORES

  1. Antiplatelet Trialists´Collaboration: Collaborative overview of ramdomized trials of antiplatelet therapy. I: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Br Med J 1994; 308: 81-106.

  2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Ramdoomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both or neither among 17.187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. Lancet 1988; II: 349-360.

  3. ETDRS Investigators. Aspirin effects on mortality and morbidity in patients wuth diabetes mellitus. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study report number 14. JAMA 1992; 268: 1292-1300.

  4. CAPRIE Steering Committee. A ramdomized, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events. Lancet 1996; 348: 1329-1339.

  5. The Norwegian Multicenter Study Group: Timolol induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1981; 304: 801-807.

  6. Blocker Heart Attack Study Group: The Beta-blocker heart attack Trial research group. A ramdomized trial of propranolol in patients with acvute myocardial infarction: I. Mortality results.. JAMA 1982; 247: 1707-1714.

  7. Hjalmarson A, Elmfeldt D, Herlitz J et al.: Effect on mortality of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. A double blindt ramdomized study. Lancet 1981; ii: 823-827.

  8. Lau J, Antman EM, Jiménez-Silva J et al.: Cumulative meta-analisis of therapeutic trials for myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 248-254.

  9. Kendall MJ, Lynch KP, Hjalmarson A et al.: B-blockers and suddent dead. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 358-367.

  10. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA et al.: Efecto of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction: Results of the Survival And Ventricular Enlargement trial-The SAVE investigators. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 669-677.

  11. The Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinicalevidence of heart failñlure. Lancet 1993; 342: 821-828.

  12. Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE et al.: for the Trandolaprill Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) Study Group. A clinical trial of the angiotensin-converter enzyme inhibitor trandolapril in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1670-1676.

  13. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravivenza nell´Infarto Miocárdico. Six month effects of early treatment with lisinopril aand transdermal glycerytrinitrate single and together withdrawn six weeks after acute myocardial infarction: The GISSI-3 Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27: 337.344.

  14. ISIS-4: A ramdomized factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulpha te in 58050 patiens with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Four International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1995; 345: 669:685.

  15. Investigators of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study:º Effects of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor, Ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1601-1612.

  16. Pitt B, Segal R, Martínez FA et al.: on behalf of the ELITE investigators. Ramdomized trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart faillure (Evaluation of Losartan In The Elderly Study ELITE). Lancet 1997; 349: 747-752.

  17. Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Segal R et al.: Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: ramdomised trial. The losartan heart failure survival study. Elite II. Lancet, 2000; 355: 1582-1587.

  18. Held PH, Yusuf S, Furberg CD: Calcium Channel blocker in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. Br Med J 1989; 299: 1187-1192.

  19. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myicardial infarction: Effects of verapamil on mortality and major events after acute myocardial infarction (The Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial –II-DAVIT-II). Am J Cardiol 1990; 66:779-785.

  20. Gibson RS, Boden WE, Theroux P et al.: Diltiazem and reinfarction in patients with non-Qwave myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 423-429.

  21. The multicenter diltiazem postinfarction trial research group. The effect of diltiazem on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 385-392.

  22. The Israeli SPRINT Study Group: Secondary prevention reinfarction israeli nifedipine trial (SPRINT). A ramdomized intervention trial of nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1988; 9: 354-364.

  23. SPRINT Study Group. The secondary prevention reinfarction israeli nifedipine trial (SPRINT-II): Desing and methods, results. Eur Heart J 1988; 9 (suppl 1): 350A.

  24. Thadani U: Secondary prevention potential of nitrates in ischaemic heart disease. Eur Heart J 1996; 17 (suppl F): 30-36.

  25. The Sixty-plus reinfarction studdy group. A Double blindt trial to assess long term oral anticoagulant therapy in elderly patients after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1980; ii: 989-994;

  26. Anticoagulants in the Secondary Prevention of Events in Coronary Thrombosis (ASPECT) Research Group. Effect of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment on mortality and cardiovascular mobidity after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:499-503.

  27. Smith P, Arnesen H, Holme I.: The effcet of warfarin on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 147-152.

  28. The EPSIM Research Group: A controlled comparison of aspirin and oral anticoagulants in prevention of death after myocardial infarction. N Eng J Med 1982;307:701-708,

  29. Meijer A, Verheut FW, Werter CJ. Et al.: Aspirin versus coumadin in the prevention of reoclusion and recurret inchaemia after succesfun thrombolysis: A prospective placebo-controlled angiographic study. Results of the APRICOT study. Circulation 1993; 87: 1524-1530

  30. Coumadin Aspirin Reinfarction Study (CARS) Investigators. Ramdomized double-blind trial of fixed low-dose warfarinn with aspirin after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1997; 350: 389-396.

  31. Weinreich DJ, Burke JF, Puletto LF.: Left ventricular mural thrombi complicating acute myocardial infarction: long-term follow-up with serial achocardiography. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:789-794,

  32. Johannessen KA, Nordrehaug JE, Von der Lippe G.: Left ventricular thrombosis and cerebrovascular accident in acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J 1984; 51: 553-556.

  33. The Cardiac Arrythmias Supressión Trial (CAST) Investigators. Preliminary report: effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a ramdomized trial of arrhytmia Effect ofsuppression after myocardial infarctio. N Eng J Med 1989;321:406-412.

  34. McAlister FA, Teo KK.: Antiarrhytmic theraìes for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Drugs 1997; 54: 235-252.

  35. Burkart F, Pfisterer M, Kiowski W, et al.: Effect of antiarrhytmic therapy on mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction with asymptomatic complex ventricular arrhythmias: Basel Antiarrhythmic Study of Infarcto Survival(BASIS). J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16: 1711-1718.

  36. Julian DG, Camm AJ, Frangin G et al.: Ramdomized trial of effect of amiodarone on mortality in patientsbwith left ventricular dysfunction after recent myocardial infarctio n: EMIAT European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial, Lancet 1997;349:667-674,

  37. Cairns JA, Connolly SJ, Roberts R et al.: Ramdomized trial of outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with frequent or repetitive ventricular premature depolarisations: CAMIAT Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial, Lancet, 1997;349:675-682).

  38. Waldo AL, Camm AJ, De Ruyter H et al.: Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction. Lancet , 1996; 348: 7-12.

  39. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS et al.: Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhytmia. Multicenter Automatic Desfibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) Investigators. N Eng J Med, 1996; 335: 1933-1940).

  40. A comparison of antiarrhytmic-drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhytmiass. The antiarrhytmics versus implantable defibrillators (AVID) Investigators. N Eng J Med, 1997; 337:1576-1583.


TSH

  1. Speroff L, Rowan J, Symons J, Genant H, Wilborn W. The comparative effect on bone density, endometrium, and lipids of continuons hormones as replacement therapy ( CHART study ) Arandomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996; 276: 1.397-1.403.

  2. Healy B. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on endometrial histology in postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions ( PEPI ) trial. The vriting group for the PEPI: JAMA 1996; 275: 370-375

  3. Healy B. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimes on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women: the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1995;273:199-208.

  4. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA 1998;280:605-613.


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